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Submissions should be made electronically through this website. Once submitted, the author can track the submission and communicate with the editors via the online journal management system.
Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript. Failure to do so may delay processing your submission.
To ensure blind peer review, please only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file.
The names of all authors, affiliations, contact details, biography (optional) and the corresponding author details must be completed online as part of the submission process.
Author names should include a forename and a surname. Forenames cannot include only initials.
The affiliation should ideally include ‘Department, Institution, City, Country’. However only the Institution and Country are mandatory.
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.
Please provide up to six Key Words listed in alphabetical order.
The Abstract and Key Words should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.
The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research presented.
Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using bold or italics as follows:
Heading 1 (bold)
Heading 2 (bold, italics)
Heading 3 (italics)
Supplementary Files (optional)
Any supplementary/additional files that should link to the main publication must be listed, with a corresponding number, title and option description. Ideally the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.
e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix. Scientific data related to the experiments.
Note: additional files will not be typeset so they must be provided in their final form. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication.
If data, structured methods or code used in the research project have been made openly available, a statement should be added to inform the reader how/where to access these files. This should include the repository location and the DOI linking to it. Read our reproducibility guide for more information on best practice and maximising the impact of your open data.
If data used in the research project has not been made available, a statement confirming this should be added, along with reasoning why.
Ethics and consent (if applicable)
Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Where applicable, studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject(s) should be anonymised whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian) and added to this statement. If a study involving human subjects/tissue/data was exempt from requiring ethical approval, a confirmation statement from the relevant body should be included within the submission.
Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list.
Funding Information (if applicable)
Should the research have received a funding grant then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed.
If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.
All references cited within the submission must be listed at the end of the main text file.
The author is responsible for obtaining all permissions required prior to submission of the manuscript. Permission and owner details should be stated for all third-party content included in the submission or used in the research.
If a method or tool is introduced in the study, including software, questionnaires, and scales, the license this is available under and any requirement for permission for use should be stated. If an existing method or tool is used in the research, it is the author's responsibility to check the license and obtain the necessary permissions. Statements confirming that permission was granted should be included in the Materials and Methods section.
Language & Text
For the submission title:
Capitalise the first word and any proper nouns. Capitalise the first word of a subtitle.
Headings within the main text:
-All headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.
Headings should be under 75 characters.
Submissions must be made in English. British spellings are preferred; American spellings will be converted to British spellings during copy-editing
When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.
The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size. 12 point Times New Roman is ideal. This may be changed during the typesetting process.
Underlined text should be reserved for hyperlinks.
Bold or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, but should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency.
Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.
Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.
Use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.
Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text.
The standard, non-italicised font must be used for all quotes.
It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote is sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.
Acronyms & Abbreviations
With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader—particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed—is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.
A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here.
Abbreviations should be in capital letters without full stops.
Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.
Use of footnotes/endnotes
Footnotes, rather than endnotes, are used in this journal. Please keep footnotes to a minimum. Footnotes should be used only for crucial clarifying informationthat cannot be integrated into the text.
Please do not use footnotes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead.
Please insert the footnote marker after the end punctuation.
Data & Symbols
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.
Hyphenation, em and en dashes
There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.
Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace comas, parentheses, colons or semicolons.
En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.
For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.
We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.
If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance.
If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.
If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.
Do not use a comma for a decimal place.
Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.
Units of measurement
Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf for the full brochure.
Formulae must be proofed carefully by the author. Editors will not edit formulae. If special software has been used to create formulae, the way it is laid out is the way they will appear in the publication.
Figures & Tables
Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask to re-render or omit it.
All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).
Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive main title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the figure image. A short additional figure legend is optional to offer a further description.
Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document, after the paragraph of their first citation.
The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of authorisation (if needed).
Tables must be created using a word processor's table function, not tabbed text.
Tables should be included in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.
All tables must be cited within the main text, numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.).
Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. A short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. The table title and legend should be placed underneath the table.
Tables should not include:
NOTE: If there are more columns than can fit on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still can't fit horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two.
In-text citations [author-year]
Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used.
If the author is already mentioned in the main text then the year should follow the name within parenthesis.
If the author name is not mentioned in the main text then the surname and year should be inserted, in parenthesis, after the relevant text. Multiple citations should be separated by semi-colon and follow alphabetical order.
If three or fewer authors are cited from the same citation then all should be listed. If four or more authors are part of the citation then ‘et al.’ should follow the first author name.
If citations are used from the same author and the same year, then a lowercase letter, starting from ‘a’, should be placed after the year.
If specific pages are being cited then the page number should follow the year, separated with a comma and space and preceded by p. and a single space’.
For publications authored and published by organisations, use the short form of the organisation’s name or its acronym in lieu of the full name.
Please do not include URLs in parenthetical citations, but rather cite the author or page title and include all details, including the URL, in the reference list.
All citations must be listed at the end of the text, in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames.
All reading materials cited in the text must be included in ‘References’.
NOTE: If multiple works by the same author are listed, please re-type the author’s name for each entry, rather than using a long dash.
NOTE: DOIs should be included only if the item is unavailable in print format (for example, include a DOI if the item is ‘ahead of print’ or ‘online first’).
NOTE: List organisational names under the shortened form or acronym used in the citation. Include the full name of the organisation within the entry as follows:
ACARA (2011) Guide to understanding ICSEA. Sydney, NSW, Australian Curriculum Assessment Reporting Authority.
This journal uses the Harvard system—see below for examples of how to format:
Author, AA (Year) Title. Publisher, Place of publication.
Adam, DJ (1984) Stakeholder analysis. 2nd edn. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.
Silverman, DF & Propp, KK (eds) (1990) The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage.
Author, AA (Year) Chapter Title. In A Editor (ed) Title. Place of publication, Publisher, pp. pages.
Barnett, R (2012) Introduction. In R Barnett (ed) The future university: Ideas and possibilities. New York, NY, Routledge, pp. 1-12.
Author, A (Year) Title. Journal name, vol(issue), pp. pages.
Andersen, PL & Hansen, MN (2011) Class and cultural capital: The case of class inequality in educational performance. European Sociological Review, 28(5), pp. 607-621.
Author, A (Year) Title. Journal name, vol(issue), pages.
Martin, L (2010) Bombs, bodies and biopolitics: Securitizing the subject at airport security. Social and Cultural Geography, 11(1), pp. 17-34.
NOTE: Please include DOIs only if the item is ‘ahead of print’ and has not yet been assigned a volume, issue and page numbers:
Martin, C (2019) Educational justice and the value of knowledge. Journal of Philosophy of Education, (ahead of print). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12370
Author, A (Year) Title. Newspaper, date of publication, page.
Tate, P (2007) Illicit organ trade increasing. The Jordan Times, 6 June, p. 3.
Author, A (Year) Title. Newspaper [online], date of publication. Available from URL
Williams, G (1977) Protest as council meets. Sydney Morning Herald, 23 November. Available from http://smharchives.smedia.com.au
Author, A (Year) Title of chapter. In Title of conference proceedings, location, date, pp. pages.
Lynch, M. 2003. Dialogue in an age of terror. In The Annual Meeting of the American Political
Science Association, Philadelphia, PA, 18 August 2003, pp. 4-7.
Author, A (Year) Title of paper. Paper presented at Title of conference, location, date
Burgess, C & Berwick, C (2009) Aboriginal peoples’ perceptions and beliefs about quality teaching. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Canberra, ACT, 29 November - 3 December 2009.
Author group (Year) Title. Publisher, Place of publication,
World Health Organization (2010) The world health report – Health systems financing: The path to universal coverage. Switzerland, WHO, Geneva.
Author, A (Year) Title. Unpublished thesis (PhD), institution.
Yudis, A (2004) Failed responsibility of the media in the war on Iraq. Unpublished thesis (PhD),
University of Manchester.
Author, A (Year) Title. Publisher. Available from URL
Department of Education and Training (2017) International student data monthly summary. Australian Government. Available from https://internationaleducation.gov.au/research/International-Student-Data/Documents/MONTHLY%20SUMMARIES/2017/Mar%202017%20MonthlyInfographic.pdf
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.